Civilians and violent protests: Is there a line and when is it crossed?

When protests become so violent that tens or hundreds of lives are lost or injured, can these be described as conflicts, violence against civilians, or indeed violence by civilians? What does international humanitarian law say about these types of situations? Does the law fit the realities in cases where the line between protests and armed conflict are blurry?

These questions came up during reflections on the concept of “civilian”. Please share your insights in the thread to help further our collective understanding of the issue!